October 8-12, 2012 · Hyatt Regency Minneapolis · Minneapolis, Minnesota

Tutorials

Tutorials are Pre- Conference Sessions.  There is an additional fee for each tutorial.  Tutorials are held on Monday, October 8, 2012.  

Click here for Tutorial Fees

First Session: 8:00 am - 9:40 am

Second Session: 10:00 am - 11:40 am  

Third Session: 1:00 am - 2:40 am

Fourth Session: 3:00 am - 4:40 am

1. Introduction to Aerosol Mechanics 1

Richard C. Flagan, Department of Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA

Abstract:  These two courses (Tutorials 1 and 5) form a sequence that covers basic aerosol mechanics (particle motion) at an introductory level. Topics in Part 1 include the aerodynamics of single particles, Stokes law, settling velocity, slip correction, aerodynamic diameter, non-spherical particles, acceleration, relaxation time, stopping distance, impaction, electrical mobility, and aerosol sampling.  Part 2 will discuss the collective behavior of aerosols, e.g., Brownian motion, diffusion, deposition, filtration, condensation, and coagulation, and their effects on particle size distributions. The course covers theory and applications and is suitable for those new to the field and for others who want to brush up on the basics.

Richard C. Flagan is the McCollum/Corcoran Professor and Executive Officer for Chemical Engineering at the California Institute of Technology where he teaches chemical engineering and environmental science. He has served as president of AAAR and editor-in-chief of Aerosol Science and Technology. His research spans the field of aerosol science, including atmospheric aerosols, aerosol instrumentation, aerosol synthesis of nanoparticles and other materials, and bioaerosols. His many contributions to the field of aerosol science have been acknowledged with the AAAR Sinclair Award and the Fuchs Award.

2. Molecular Biology-Based Bioaerosol Analyses

Jordan Peccia, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT        

Abstract: This tutorial covers molecular biology concepts and tools that are relevant for the analysis of airborne biological material. The course begins with a targeted introduction to genetics, phylogenetics, and bioinformatics for aerosol scientists that have a limited background in biology. Next, molecular biology-based methods that are useful for the quantification, identification, and population characterization of bacteria, fungi, and viruses in aerosols will be presented along with examples. These methods include polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative PCR, immunoassays and proteomics, and next generation DNA sequencing to produce phylogenetic libraries. The course will conclude with an overview of sampling strategies that can be integrated with molecular biology-based analysis, and information on the quantitativeness of the above methods.

Jordan Peccia is an associate professor of chemical and environmental engineering and the environmental engineering director of undergraduate studies at Yale University. His research group integrates molecular biotechnology with process engineering to address environmental problems. Dr. Peccia has over 15 years of experience in applying molecular biology to assess the sources, the diversity of, and the exposure to airborne bacteria, fungi and viruses in the atmosphere and in indoor environments. He earned his PhD in environmental engineering from the University of Colorado in 2001.

3. Mass Spectrometry 1: Instrumentation for Aerosol Scientists

Jose-Luis Jimenez, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, and Cooperative Institute for Research on the Environmental Sciences (CIRES), University of Colorado-Boulder, Boulder, CO  

Abstract: The past 15 years have seen the emergence of several methods capable of determining the size and chemical composition of aerosol particles in real-time using mass spectrometry. Advances in inlet design, detection, and spectrometric techniques have led to high-resolution sizing information, single particle analysis, and quantitative analysis of aerosol components. Several instruments have been commercialized and about 100 research groups throughout the world currently use some form of online aerosol MS instrumentation. This tutorial covers the instrumentation components used in online aerosol mass spectrometers, including inlets, sizing methods, and mass spectrometers. The configuration and properties of the most commonly used instruments, such as the Aerodyne AMS and ACSM, laser-ablation instruments, and emerging instruments capable of organic molecular speciation will be discussed. A companion tutorial by Prof. Johnston covers mass spectrometric data interpretation.

Prof. Jimenez received a double MS in mechanical engineering from the Universities of Zaragoza (Spain) and Compiegne (France) in 1993; and a PhD from MIT in 1998. In 1999-2002 he was a research scientist at Aerodyne Research / MIT and Caltech. Since 2002 he has been a professor of chemistry and fellow of CIRES at CU-Boulder, and in Spring 2009 he was a visiting professor at CSIC-IDAEA in Spain. He is an author of over 175 peer-reviewed papers, including 60+ ISI Highly Cited Papers. He serves as an associate editor of AMT and on the editorial boards of AS&T and Atmospheric Environment. He has received the NSF CAREER Award in 2004, the AAAR Whitby Award in 2008 and the Rosenstiel Award in 2010. His current research interests center on aerosol mass spectrometry instrument development and field, laboratory, and modeling studies.

4. Organic Gas/Particle Partitioning

James Pankow, Department of Chemistry and Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Portland State University, Portland, OR

Abstract: Gas/particle (G/P) partitioning is the process by which compounds distribute themselves between the gas phase and aerosol particles.   In the case of organic compounds, the result is the formation/evaporation of organic particulate matter (OPM).    For each compound involved in the partitioning, there will be a partitioning constant Kp that governs thermodynamics of the partitioning, with each Kp value dependent on the vapor pressure of the compound (which is strongly temperature dependent) and the composition of the particle phase into which the partitioning is occurring.  This tutorial will explore the fundamental chemistry governing the G/P partitioning process.  It will discuss the popular Donahue "volatility-basis-set" (VBS) binned approach to setting values of Kp (=1/C*) for use in modeling, as a means to lump the case-dependent broad mixes of compounds involved in organic PM formation.  It will also discuss the Pankow and Barsanti "carbon-number-polarity grid" approach for lumping.  The importance of considering the chemical composition (including polarity) of the partitioning species will be emphasized given that this chemistry determines the response of the system to changes in temperature, relative humidity, the general total levels of partitioning species Ti, and time.  The possibility of phase separation into less polar and more polar phases will be discussed, as well as non-equilibrium aspects of the problem.

Dr. Pankow’s academic training combined basic chemistry (BA, SUNY, 1973) with engineering (PhD, Caltech, 1979).  His research has involved the application of chemical principles to understanding how chemicals partition between important phases in the environment.  A primary focus of Dr. Pankow’s work has involved the study of the “gas/particle (G/P) partitioning” process, i.e., how compounds distribute themselves between the gas phase and the associated particles of aerosol systems.  This type of partitioning is of enormous fundamental importance in all contemporary model predictions of the amounts of polluting particulate matter (PM) that form in urban and regional air, and in the global atmosphere.  His work on this theory, which is used in climate change research, resulted in his receipt of the 1999 American Chemical Society Award for Creative Advances in Environmental Science & Technology, and of the 2005 Haagen-Smit Prize. Gas/particle partitioning also affects the behavior and fate of individual toxic pollutants in the atmosphere, and theory developed by Pankow (1987) provides the foundation of the Junge-Pankow model used to predict how toxic compounds such as PCBs, pesticides, and dioxins behave in contaminated air, including how such compounds are transported to sensitive remote polar ecosystems.

5. Introduction to Aerosol Mechanics 2

Richard C. Flagan, Department of Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA

Abstract:  These two courses (Tutorials 1 and 5) form a sequence that covers basic aerosol mechanics (particle motion) at an introductory level. Topics in Part 1 include the aerodynamics of single particles, Stokes law, settling velocity, slip correction, aerodynamic diameter, non-spherical particles, acceleration, relaxation time, stopping distance, impaction, electrical mobility, and aerosol sampling.  Part 2 will discuss the collective behavior of aerosols, e.g., Brownian motion, diffusion, deposition, filtration, condensation, and coagulation, and their effects on particle size distributions. The course covers theory and applications and is suitable for those new to the field and for others who want to brush up on the basics.

Richard C. Flagan is the McCollum/Corcoran Professor and Executive Officer for Chemical Engineering at the California Institute of Technology where he teaches chemical engineering and environmental science. He has served as president of AAAR and editor-in-chief of Aerosol Science and Technology. His research spans the field of aerosol science, including atmospheric aerosols, aerosol instrumentation, aerosol synthesis of nanoparticles and other materials, and bioaerosols. His many contributions to the field of aerosol science have been acknowledged with the AAAR Sinclair Award and the Fuchs Award.

6. Aerosol Technology for Inhalation Toxicology and Chamber Studies

Patrick T. O’Shaughnessy, Department of Occupational & Environmental Health, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA

Abstract:  From an aerosols standpoint, the goal of inhalation toxicology studies and other studies involving environmental chambers is to create a stable aerosol over time in terms of both a desired concentration level and size distribution. This tutorial will provide a detailed overview of aerosol generation and sampling methods, as well as chamber design, for inhalation toxicology and other chamber studies involving the production and measurement of an aerosol. Both the favorable and unfavorable attributes of a variety of aerosol generation techniques for inorganic, organic, and fibrous particles will be described. A special emphasis will be placed on recent devices designed specifically to produce nanoparticle aerosols. Different chamber designs will be discussed in terms of their capabilities to provide spatially homogenous aerosol concentrations. Entire chamber systems for producing and measuring an aerosol will also be described to emphasize airflow considerations and the application of feedback control to stabilize aerosol concentrations.  

Patrick O’Shaughnessy is professor and associate head for the Department of Occupational & Environmental Health at the University of Iowa where he also holds a joint appointment with civil & environmental engineering. He has taught a range of courses including air pollution control technology, environmental health, and statistics for experimenters. He has been a member of the AAAR since 1999 where he has served as chair of the health related aerosols committee. His research has involved over twenty years of experience collaborating on inhalation toxicology studies involving asbestos, silica, organic aerosols and nanoparticles, as well as supervising studies involving exposure assessments of aerosols in occupational settings and ambient environments.

7. Mass Spectrometry 2: Fundamentals for Aerosol Scientists  

Murray Johnston, Department of Chemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, DE

Abstract: Mass spectrometers are widely used for aerosol chemical characterization.  This tutorial will cover fundamental topics in mass spectrometry that are relevant to aerosol scientists no matter what type of experiment they perform. We will explore how the method of ionization determines the types of ions that are formed and how the distribution of ions from an aerosol sample provides chemical composition information.  Ionization methods to be discussed include electron ionization (EI), chemical ionization (CI), electrospray ionization (ESI), laser desorption ionization (LDI) and related methods. Spectral interpretation topics to be discussed include the use of isotope ratios, accurate mass measurements, basic fragmentation mechanisms and advanced data analysis/visualization methods. 

Murray Johnston is a professor in the chemistry department at the University of Delaware.  His group uses mass spectrometry to study microchemical reactions within particles, heterogeneous reactions between gas-phase and particulate-phase species, formation of secondary organic aerosol and field measurements. His current work emphasizes characterization of particles and molecular clusters in the 1-30 nm size range.

8. Secondary Aerosol Formation

Paul J. Ziemann, Air Pollution Research Center and Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA

Abstract:  Secondary aerosol is an important component of atmospheric fine particles that generally consists of organics, sulfates, and nitrates. The processes that lead to the formation of this material are often complex and can involve gas and particle phase chemistry, nucleation, and gas-particle partitioning. This course will discuss the major chemical reactions and partitioning processes involved in the formation of secondary organic and inorganic aerosol (with a strong emphasis on organic aerosol) using examples from laboratory and field studies.

Paul Ziemann is a professor of atmospheric chemistry at the University of California, Riverside. He received a doctorate in chemistry from Penn State University and was a postdoctoral researcher in the Particle Technology Laboratory at the University of Minnesota.

9. Nucleation Theory

Steven L. Girshick, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN

Abstract: This tutorial will introduce the theory of nucleation of aerosol particles from the gas phase.  Discussion will focus on the following: basic concepts in homogeneous nucleation of a supersaturated vapor; classical nucleation theory; atomistic approaches; transient nucleation; and nucleation in chemically reacting systems and plasmas.

Steven L. Girshick is professor of mechanical engineering and a member of the graduate faculty in chemical engineering and materials science at the University of Minnesota.  He received an SB in humanities and science at M.I.T. and a PhD in mechanical engineering (1985) at Stanford.  Since 1985 he has been at the University of Minnesota, where he is director of the High Temperature and Plasma Laboratory.  Prof. Girshick is editor-in-chief of Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing and serves on the editorial board of the Journal of Nanoengineering and Nanosystems.  He was the recipient of the 2005 Plasma Chemistry Award, the highest award of the International Plasma Chemistry Society.  In addition to Prof. Girshick’s work on synthesis and processing of aerosol nanoparticles he has published a number of papers on nucleation theory.

10. Environmental Chambers: Approaches and Challenges

David Cocker, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Riverside, CA

Abstract: Environmental chambers are widely used to study atmospheric chemistry and secondary organic aerosol formation.  While very useful for these studies, the presence of chamber surfaces presents a unique set of experimental challenges.  This tutorial will explore the historical development of chambers (static and flow), the role of surfaces in influencing the chemistry within the chamber, and how these effects are characterized and accounted for within such experiments.  Chamber quality control experiments including assessment of  low-NOx experimental conditions, wall loss, particle background, particle-gas-wall interactions, HONO release, and implications for kinetic and aerosol modeling will be discussed.

David Cocker is a professor of chemical and environmental engineering at UC Riverside.  He received his PhD in environmental engineering science from Caltech and a BS in environmental engineering and chemistry from UC Riverside.  He is the current manager of the atmospheric processes laboratory group at the Bourns College of Engineering, Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT).   Research interests include experimental investigations of secondary organic aerosol formation using environmental chambers.  Additional research interests focus on characterizing in-use particulate and gaseous emissions from mobile and stationary sources.

11. Spectroscopy of Aerosols

Ruth Signorell, Department of Chemistry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

Abstract:  Spectroscopic methods play a central role for the characterization of aerosols. A large number of spectroscopic instruments are available to measure aerosols wherever they occur. This course is intended to provide an introduction into aerosol spectroscopy and an overview of the state-of-the-art of this rapidly developing field. It will include fundamental aspects of aerosol spectroscopy as well as applications to atmospherically and astronomically relevant problems. The goal is to provide an overview of the latest experimental and theoretical studies in aerosol spectroscopy. The course will cover the whole range of spectroscopic methods from infrared and Raman to UV/VIS and X-ray. The focus will be on fundamental aspects of light particle interaction as a function of the wavelength and on aerosol properties that can be probed with light of a certain wavelength. Fundamental problems associated with the analysis of aerosol spectra as well as other aspects that need further research and development will be discussed.

Ruth Signorell is a professor in the Department of Chemistry at the University of British Columbia. She received her undergraduate and post-graduate degrees in physics and chemistry from the ETH Z├╝rich in Switzerland. Her research interests focus on spectroscopic and mass spectrometric studies of aerosols. She is co-editor of a book on “Fundamentals and Applications in Aerosol Spectroscopy”. Among the awards she has received are the 2005 Werner Award of the Swiss Chemical Society, an A. P. Sloan Fellowship in 2007 (USA), and an E. W. R. Steacie Memorial Fellowship in 2011 (Canada).

12. Thermodynamics of Aerosols and Droplets Using the Extended Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM)

Simon L. Clegg, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, U.K.

Anthony S. Wexler, Air Quality Research Center, University of California, Davis, CA

Abstract: This course covers the atmospheric thermodynamics of mixtures of acids, salts and organic compounds and how to calculate their properties and equilibrium partitioning using the Extended Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM). The fundamentals covered will include: liquid-solid, liquid-gas, and liquid-liquid equilibrium; Henry’s law and vapour pressures; concentration scales, activity coefficients, and reference states; stable and metastable equilibrium; how to model systems containing organic compounds (including the use of UNIFAC).

E-AIM treats four different inorganic systems to which organic compounds (acids, amines, and non-dissociating compounds) can be added. Organics may be chosen from a small library, or users can create them and define their thermodynamic properties. These include equilibrium constants for dissociation (acids and amines), the formation of solids, partitioning into the gas phase and (for amines) the formation of nitrate, sulphate and chloride salts. E-AIM simulates both an aqueous and, if organic compounds are present, a hydrophobic non-aqueous phase. The E-AIM website has facilities for saving the properties of organic compounds for future calculations, in ways suitable for both research and teaching applications. It has calculators for surface tension, density and vapour pressures of organic compounds. The tutorial will teach the use of the model for practical calculations of solution properties, water uptake, and gas/liquid/solid partitioning, closely linked to the underlying thermodynamic principles.

Simon Clegg is a professor in the School of Environmental Sciences at the University of East Anglia at Norwich (in the U.K.), and a member of the Air Quality Research Center at the University of California at Davis. He received his PhD at UEA, and for ten years was an advanced research fellow of the Natural Environment Research Council. His primary research interests are solution thermodynamics and activity coefficient modeling applied to natural systems.

Anthony Wexler is a professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering, civil and environmental engineering and land, air and water resources; and director of the Air Quality Research Center and Crocker Nuclear Laboratory at the University of California, Davis. His research focuses on particles in the atmosphere and their relation to human health and climate change.

13. Combustion Synthesis of Materials: From Basic Commodities to Functional Devices

Sotiris E. Pratsinis, Process Engineering and Materials Science, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich

Abstract: The tutorial will begin with the fascinating history of aerosol technology from production of inks in ancient China and Greece to the Bible printing by Gutemberg and to the manufacture of optical fibers, carbon blacks, pigments, fumed silica and filamentary nickel today. The seven advantages of aerosol technology over solution or wet-chemistry are emphasized. Flame aerosol reactors are discussed for their proven scalability as they dominate both by value and volume of aerosol-made materials today. Opportunities for aerosol synthesis of sophisticated functional films and particles, in particular for catalysts and sensors, are presented by combustion of sprayed solutions.  Basic design principles for synthesis of nanoparticles with controlled primary particle size are presented by going over specific experiments as well as simulations combining fluid and particle dynamics.  The focus is on the residence time distribution, degree of particle aggregation and agglomeration and on synthesis of layered nanoparticles that “cure” some of their deleterious effects.

Dr. Sotiris E. Pratsinis has been professor of process engineering and materials science at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) since 1998.  There he founded the Particle Technology Laboratory focusing on aerosol synthesis of sophisticated materials and devices, in close collaboration with industry. He teaches mass transfer, introduction to nanoscale engineering, combustion synthesis of materials and micro- & nano-particle technology. He has received his Diploma in chemical engineering from the Aristotle University in Thessaloniki, Greece (1977) and his PhD from the University of California, Los Angeles (1985).

14. Advanced Air Filtration

Peter C. Raynor, Division of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN

Abstract: Focusing primarily on fibrous filters made from non-woven media, this tutorial will explore issues beyond the basic mechanisms by which filters capture airborne particles. We will talk about how electret filters, made from fibers that carry electrostatic charges, collect particles and why they are such an important part of the filter market. In addition, we will discuss the long-term performance of both electret and non-electret filters as they are loaded with particles, and the effects that changes in performance can have on filter users. Designs to maximize long-term performance will be considered. Participants completing the tutorial will understand many of the factors that influence filter design and long-term performance and have an appreciation for some of the factors that we still need to know more about.

Dr. Peter C. Raynor, an associate professor in the Division of Environmental Health Sciences at the University of Minnesota School of Public Health, holds a BS in chemical engineering from Cornell University and MS and PhD degrees in environmental sciences & engineering from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. His research and teaching interests revolve around the assessment and control of environmental exposures, especially those occurring in workplace environments. Dr. Raynor's publications include papers on filtration theory, mist droplet filtration, long-term performance of electret and non-electret HVAC filters, and use of HVAC filters as long-term samplers for viruses and bacteria in public buildings.

15. The Conceptual Framework and Application of Receptor Models

Philip K. Hopke, Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY

Abstract: This tutorial will present the underlying chemical basis for distinct profiles for the different types of emission sources and how these differences in profiles then permit the application of receptor models. The conceptual framework of receptor models, a mass balance approach, will be described. The resulting mathematical approaches can be then implemented depending on what a priori information is available. The use of ancillary data such as meteorology and back trajectories will be introduced. Applications of several types of models to various particle composition problems will be described with an emphasis on the practical use of Positive Matrix Factorization for both elemental and organic species data.

Dr. Philip K. Hopke is the Bayard D. Clarkson Distinguished Professor and Director of the Institute for a Sustainable Environment at Clarkson University. Professor Hopke received his BS in chemistry from Trinity College (Hartford) and his MA and PhD degrees in chemistry from Princeton University. He is a past chair of EPA’s Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC), a past president of AAAR, and is currently a member of the NRC’s Board of Environmental Studies and Toxicology. He is a fellow of the International Aerosol Research Assembly, the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Association for Aerosol Research, an elected member of the International Statistics Institute, the recipient of the Eastern Analytical Symposium Award in Chemometrics, and a recipient of the David Sinclair Award.

16. Heterogeneous and Aqueous Chemistry of Aerosols

V. Faye McNeill, Department of Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY

Abstract: The reactive uptake of gas-phase species by atmospheric aerosol particles influences both gas- and particle-phase chemical composition. The theoretical treatment of heterogeneous and multiphase aerosol chemical reactions will be presented. Topics to be covered include mass accommodation, Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics, multi-layer models, and reactions coupled with diffusion in the gas and particle phases. We will discuss atmospherically important classes of reactions including: the heterogeneous oxidation of aerosol organics, N2O5 uptake, halogen activation reactions, and aqueous-phase SOA formation.  Finally, we will discuss approaches for characterizing these processes in a laboratory setting and in the ambient atmosphere.

V. Faye McNeill is an associate professor (untenured) in the Department of Chemical Engineering at Columbia University. She received a bachelor’s degree in chemical engineering from the California Institute of Technology, and masters’ and doctoral degrees in chemical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She conducted postdoctoral research at the University of Washington in the Department of Atmospheric Sciences. She has received the NSF CAREER award and the ACS Petroleum Research Fund Doctoral New Investigator award. Her research interests include aerosol heterogeneous chemistry and the sources and properties of aerosol organics.

 

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