AAAR 28th Annual Conference

October 26-30, 2009
Hyatt Regency Minneapolis
Minneapolis, Minnesota

Plenary Lectures

The Conference Committee is proud to have four distinguished speakers for the plenary sessions. Each speaker will offer a stimulating and insightful presentation on topics of current and emerging interest to aerosol scientists.

Tuesday, October 27
8:00 a.m. - 9:15 a.m.
the logo of AEESPAEESP Lecture: Reactions at Interfaces in the Atmosphere: A New Dimension in Aerosol Research?
Barbara Finlayson-Pitts, University of California, Irvine

AEESP Lecture is sponsored by the Association of Environmental Engineering and Science Professors.

Abstract: The traditional view of multiphase chemistry in the atmosphere consists of reactions in the gas phase and in the condensed phase, with mass transfer between the two. In this case, kinetics and mechanisms determined in laboratory studies of bulk liquid or gas phase systems can be used reliably in atmospheric models of aerosols. However, recent studies have shown that some reactions occur at the interface between air and the condensed phase, and that these often have unique kinetics and mechanisms that are not well represented by bulk phase chemistry. Furthermore, photochemistry at surfaces may be quite different than that in bulk phases. This new interface chemistry has important implications for tropospheric chemistry, e.g., for comparisons of predictions of atmospheric models to measured concentrations of gaseous and particle components. Some examples of unique interface chemistry and photochemistry relevant to atmospheric processes and the potential implications for understanding the formation and reactions of particles in the lower atmosphere will be presented.

Barbara Finlayson-Pitts is professor of chemistry at the University of California, Irvine. She obtained her undergraduate degree at Trent University in Canada and her MS and PhD at U.C. Riverside. She joined the faculty in the department of chemistry and biochemistry at Cal State Fullerton in 1974 and in 1994 moved to UC Irvine. Her research focuses on experimental studies of reactions that occur in the atmosphere, particularly those between gases and particles and/or thin water films on surfaces such as buildings, vegetation etc. Professor Finlayson-Pitts is author or coauthor of more than 100 scientific publications in refereed journals and two books on atmospheric chemistry. She has mentored many students from undergraduates to graduate students, as well as postdoctoral fellows who have gone on to pursue a wide variety of careers. Professor Finlayson-Pitts' research and teaching have been recognized by a number of awards, including the 2004 American Chemistry Society Award for Creative Advances in Environmental Science & Technology, election as a fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences (2006), and the National Academy of Sciences (2006), the 2008 Richard C. Tolman Medal of the Southern California Section of the American Chemical Society and the Coalition for Clean Air 2009 Carl Moyer Award for Scientific Leadership and Technical Excellence. She is also a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (1993) and the American Geophysical Union (2002).

Wednesday, October 28
8:00 a.m. - 9:15 a.m.
Friedlander Lecture: Aerosol Science and Technology Enabling a Potpourri of Energy Applications
Pratim Biswas, Washington University

Abstract: Aerosol science and engineering are now referred to as an enabling discipline which has application in a number of areas such as electronics, materials, pharmaceuticals, energy and environment. Progress in many technical areas of importance depends on aerosol science and technology. A subsection of this discipline deals with nanoparticles - the building blocks of nanotechnology. The presentation will discuss the global challenges of energy and environment and how nanoparticle aerosol science and technology can enable advanced energy technology solutions. The importance of the energy - environmental nexus will be highlighted. Energy technologies applicable over multiple time scales - from current fossil fuel use (e.g., novel modalities in coal combustion), to transitionary bio-fuels production and usage, to sustainable solar energy technologies (novel nanostructured materials) will be discussed. Applications of fundamental concepts of aerosol science and engineering that aid in addressing this "global challenge problem" will be discussed.

Pratim Biswas received his B. Tech. degree from the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay in mechanical engineering in 1980; MS degree from the University of California, Los Angeles in 1981 and his doctoral degree from the California Institute of Technology in 1985. He joined the University of Cincinnati as an assistant professor in the environmental engineering science division in 1985 and became full professor in 1993. He joined Washington University in St. Louis in August 2000 as the inaugural Stifel and Quinette Jens Professor and director of the Environmental Engineering Science Program. In 2006, he became the chair of the newly created Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering. He has won several teaching and research Awards, e.g. the 1991 Kenneth Whitby Award given by AAAR for outstanding contributions.

His research and educational interests are in aerosol science and technology, nanoparticle technology, energy and environmental nanotechnology, air quality and pollution control and the thermal sciences. He has published more than 175 refereed journal papers and presented more than 100 invited talks all across the globe.

Dr. Biswas has demonstrated significant leadership both at the university, the local and national community, including conference chair for the 15th Annual Meeting of AAAR, board of directors and the treasurer of AAAR, an associate editor of the AS&T Journal, the technical program chair of the 7th International Aerosol Conference, and a National Academies Committee to review the Federal Nanotechnology Safety Strategy. He also served as the president of AAAR in 2006-2007.

Thursday, October 29
8:00 a.m. - 9:20 a.m.
Respiratory Dose Assessment of Inhaled Particles: Continuing Progress
Chong S. Kim, USEPA National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory

Abstract: Internal dose is a key factor for determining the health risk of inhaled pollutant particles on the one hand and the efficacy of drug inhalants on the other hand. Accurate estimation of respiratory dose, however, is a difficult task because multiple factors come to play roles in the process. Deposition measurement in human lungs in vivo has been served as a primary basis of dose estimation. But the data base is largely made up with total and large-compartment regional deposition in healthy young adults breathing under prescribed conditions. Dose information is lacking for different population groups (age, gender and disease), real life exposure environment and applications to specific toxicological responses. Recently, total deposition measurements have been reported for a wide range of breathing patterns that can be related to daily activities of the general population and refined regional deposition has been reported for the sequential compartments of lung airways using a novel bolus aerosol delivery method. Although limited in scope, some new measurements have been reported in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Besides the in vivo measurements, mathematical modeling and computational fluid dynamic simulation studies have shown a marked progress allowing us to fill the gap of and extend the existing human data. Multi-compartment and micro-area dose analysis opens up the possibility of linking site-specific dose to tissue or cellular responses. Such data would be helpful for improving dose-response analysis in toxicology studies and devising new strategies of health risk assessment.

Disclaimer: This is an abstract of a proposed presentation and does not necessarily reflect EPA policy.

Chong S. Kim is a senior research scientist and a project leader of human dosimetry program at the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory of the US EPA. He is an adjunct professor both at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill and the North Carolina State University. He received his PhD in mechanical engineering (particle technology) from the University of Minnesota-Minneapolis. He has nearly 30 years of experience in aerosol research, mostly in the area of respiratory dose assessment of inhaled particles and has published over 100 papers in the related subjects. Dr. Kim has served for AAAR as the conference chair (2002), member of board of directors (2003-2006) and AS&T editor (2005-2008).

Friday, October 30
8:00 a.m. - 9:20 a.m.
Particulate Emissions from Modern Diesel Engines
David Kittelson, University of Minnesota

Abstract: During the past ten years our understanding of the nature of particles emitted by engines has increased enormously. It is now widely accepted that particles are emitted in three principal size modes that are linked to the formation mechanism. Most of the mass is emitted in the so called accumulation or soot mode comprised of particles typically in the 30 to 500 nm diameter range. These particles consist of soot agglomerates that are formed in rich regions of combustion chamber under high temperature and pressure conditions. These agglomerates carry a significant bipolar charge corresponding roughly to a high temperature Boltzmann distribution. Under typical exhaust sampling conditions most of the organic carbon, sulfates, and ash is associated with them. Somewhere in the range of 5 - 20 % of the mass emitted from engines is in coarse particles larger than about 500 nm. There are two main types of coarse particles, soot agglomerates that have deposited on combustion chamber, exhaust, and sampling system walls and blown off in larger chunks and crankcase fumes consisting mainly of atomized lubrication oil.

Most of the particle number is found in the so called nucleation mode consisting of particles typically in the 3 to 30 nm diameter range. Though this mode contains little mass, it often contains more than 90% of the particle number. There are two types of nucleation mode particles, solid and volatile. Solid nucleation mode particles form inside the engine during the expansion stroke as metal compounds in the lubrication oil and fuel undergo gas to particle conversion as the in-cylinder temperature drops. Such particles are usually found under engine conditions that produce few soot agglomerates or when the fuel in doped with metallic additives to enhance soot oxidation. Under most engine and operating conditions nucleation mode particles are volatile and form during exhaust dilution and cooling. These particles are composed mainly of heavy organic carbon and sulfates. Their formation is very dependent upon sampling and dilution conditions, and it is difficult to simulate their formation under real world conditions in the laboratory. An open question about these particles is whether they contain a solid core.

Modern diesel engines are commonly fitted with high efficiency wall flow filters. These filters are very efficient across the size range for removing solid material. However compounds that are volatile at exhaust temperatures may pass through these filters and nucleate to form volatile particles downstream. As a result of this, volatile nucleation mode particles may sometimes actually be increased by fitting and engine with a highly efficient exhaust filter.

David Kittelson, F.B. Rowley chair in mechanical engineering, is the director of the University of Minnesota Center for Diesel Research. He has worked for more than 30 years on improving performance and reducing emissions from engines. Current research interests include sampling and characterization of ultrafine and nanoparticles from engines and other combustion systems; development of advanced engine exhaust aftertreatment systems, production and use of biofuels including biodiesel, butanol, DME, Fischer-Tropsch liquids, ethanol, and biocrudes; use of hydrogen produced on-board to modify combustion in engines; reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from transportation, and development of fast response sensors for engine control. He is a fellow of the Society of Automotive Engineers.

Dates to Remember

April 27, 2009 – Abstract Submission Deadline
August 10, 2009 – Late-Breaking Poster Abstract Submission Deadline
August 17, 2009 – Early-Bird Registration Deadline
(Note: All presenters must register for the conference.)
September 25, 2009 – Advance Registration Deadline
October 1, 2009 – Hotel Sleeping Room Registration Cut-Off
October 26-30, 2009 – 28th Annual Conference — American Association for Aerosol

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